UNIT 12: ENVIRONMENT
Môi trường không còn là một chủ đề mới lại trong IELTS Speaking, tuy nhiên tần suất thí sinh IELTS bắt gặp chủ đề này là không nhỏ, kể cả trong các kỹ năng khác như listening, reading và writing.
Trong bài học hôm nay, thầy xin giới thiệu với các em list rất nhiều từ vựng về môi trường bao gồm cả những từ vựng căn bản và nâng cao. Bên cạnh đó, thầy cũng đưa ra một số câu hỏi kèm theo câu trả lời mẫu cùng một số câu hỏi tự luyện tập. Mong rằng qua chia sẻ này, chủ đề môi trường không thể làm khó các IELTS Fighter thêm được nữa!
Một số từ vựng căn bản
- acid rain: rain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil.
- biodegradable: able to decay naturally and harmlessly.
Biodegradable packaging helps to limit the amount of harmful chemicals released into the atmosphere.
- Biodiversity: the number and variety of plant and animal species that exist in a particular environmental area or in the world generally, or the problem of preserving and protecting this.
A new National Biological Survey to protect species habitat and biodiversity.
- carbon monoxide: the poisonous gas formed by the burning of carbon, especially in the form of car fuel.
- carbon dioxide: the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out.
- Climate: the general weather conditions usually found in a particular place.
The Mediterranean climate is good for growing citrus fruits and grapes.
There has been a growing concern about climate change.
- Deforestation: the cutting down of trees in a large area; the destruction of forests by people.
Deforestation is destroying large areas of tropical rain forest.
- desertification: the process by which land changes into desert.
- disposable products: describes an item that is intended to be thrown away after use.
- drought: a long period when there is little or no rain.
This year (a) severe drought has ruined the crops.
- earthquake: a sudden violent movement of the Earth’s surface, sometimes causing great damage.
- endangered species: endangered birds/plants/species animals or plants which may soon not exist because there are very few now alive.
- energy: the power from something such as electricity or oil, which can do work, such as providing light and heat. There are different types of energy: solar, nuclear, hydroelectric…
The energy generated by the windmill drives all the drainage pumps.
- energy conservation: the process of conserving energy
- environment: the air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live.
Certain chemicals have been banned because of their damaging effect on the environment.
- Extinction: Many species of plants and animals are in danger of/threatened with extinction (= being destroyed so that they no longer exist)
- Flood: a large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry.
- Fumes: strong, unpleasant and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke.
Petrol fumes always make me feel ill.
- natural resources: things such as minerals, forests, coal, etc. which exist in a place and can be used by people.
Some natural resources, such as natural gas and fossil fuel, cannot be replaced.
- global warming: 1a gradual increase in world temperatures caused by polluting gases such as carbon dioxide which are collecting in the air around the Earth and preventing heat escaping into space.
- greenhouse effect: an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to be the cause of a gradual warming of the surface of the Earth.
- green peace: an organization that fights for the protection of the environment.
- renewable energy: describes a form of energy that can be produced as quickly as it is used.
- ozone layer: a layer of air high above the Earth, which contains a lot of ozone, and which prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the Earth.
Scientists believe that there is a hole in the ozone layer.
- Pollution: damage caused to water, air…. by harmful substances or waste.
- recycle waste: to collect and treat rubbish to produce useful materials which can be used again.
- sustainable development: a development that is causing little or no damage to the environment and therefore able to continue for a long time.
- Tsunami: an extremely large wave caused by movement of the earth under the sea, often caused by an earthquake (= when the Earth shakes)
- man-made disaster: widespread damage or loss of life brought about by the action of humans
- natural disaster: an event such as an earthquake, flood or hurricane which causes widespread damage or loss of life
- natural environment: the place where animals and plants would normally be found in nature
Một số từ vựng nâng cao
- to become extinct: to no longer exist
- to be under threat: to be in danger of becoming extinct
- to die out: see ‘to become extinct’
- energy conservation: the careful management of energy resources to ensure they last as long as possible
- environmentally friendly: behaviour and products that do not harm the environment
- exhaust fumes: the toxic gases given off by vehicles powered by petrol
- future generations: the people who live after us
- to get back to nature: to live a life that is closer to nature
- humanitarian aid: the act of showing support to people struggling to survive
- impact on: the effect on
- loss of habitat: the decline in areas of land where animals and plants would normally exist
- the natural world: the world of nature
- poaching: to hunt and kill wild animals illegally
- pollution levels: the amount of toxic waste
- pressure group: a group of people who try to raise awareness of issues and try to affect the views and actions of people and organisations
- wildlife conservation: to protect animals and plants and their habitats
- regrettable: something that you are sorry about and wish that it had not happened.
- exhaust emissions: waste gases that come out of a car or other vehicle.
- contaminate: make a place or thing dirty, by adding a substance that is dangerous or polluting.
- discharge: when somebody discharges a gas or liquid, they release it and it goes into the water or the air.
- aquatic: living in water
- life-threatening: likely to kill someone.
- cutting down on: reducing the size, amount or number of something.
- awareness: knowing that something exists and is important.
II. QUESTIONS AND SAMPLE ANSWERS
- Are there any environmental problems in your country?
Yes … we have a serious issue with pollution levels in some of our big cities … exhaust fumes from cars and lorries are definitely one reason for the problem but we also have a lot of heavy industry in some areas and this also results in poor air quality …
- Do you take an interest in nature?
Well … I’m a city person through and through and don’t get back to nature very often I’m afraid … but like everyone else I’m fascinated by the natural world and I like watching documentaries showing wild animals in their natural habitat …
- Do you or your family take steps to help the environment?
My parents have always tried to make us aware of our impact on the environment… they’re really into energy conservation … and always try to buy environmentally friendly products if they have the chance …
Describe a polluted place. You should say:
• What the place is
• What type of pollution it is/ are
• Cause and effect of pollution
and explain how can this pollution be controlled.
It is regrettable that Hanoi, where I’m living, is negatively affected by pollution and the major environmental problems it is facing are water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution.
There are various reasons why this city is badly polluted. Firstly, due to modernization, more and more vehicles such as cars and motorbikes are used. This leads to an increase in exhaust emissions which contaminate the atmosphere, not to mention the rising level of noise pollution. Secondly, factories and industrial zones in the city have discharged a huge amount of untreated waste into rivers, causing death to many fish and other aquatic animals.
In fact, pollution makes people here less healthy, and some even suffer from life-threatening diseases such as lung cancer, skin cancer, and so on. Therefore, the government must deal with this problem right away. Cutting down on vehicle use is the best way to reduce air pollution and noise pollution. We can do this by encouraging people to use public transportation. Besides, those who litter should pay a heavy fine. Finally, I think the best solution is to raise awareness and educate people to protect the environment.
- What do you think is the main danger the world faces in terms of the environment?
Well … climate change is a real issue … in my country we have flash floods and heatwaves on a yearly basis … so yes … I think global warming is the biggest issue.
- What examples are there of how we damage the natural world?
There are so many examples … there are factories that empty toxic waste into rivers and oceans … oil spills that damage the coastline … the way we destroy vast areas of land and rain forests in search of fossil fuels or to increase agricultural production …
- In which ways do we respond well to environmental problems?
Well … on the one hand there are various worldwide agencies that are always the first on the scene with humanitarian aid after natural and man-made disasters … and on the other hand we have environmental pressure groups that are constantly raising awareness of issues and trying to stop disasters happening …
III. CÂU HỎI TỰ LUYỆN
- What kinds of animals are popular pets in your country? Why?
- How are animals in your country used for work?
- Are there any animals in your country that have special significance?
Describe an environmental problem that has occurred in your country.
You should say:
- The cause of the problem
- What effect it has had on your country
- The steps, if any, that have been taken to solve this
Explain why you think this problem is so important to solve.
- What do you consider to be the world’s worst environmental disaster caused by humans?
- Why do you think environmental disasters caused by humans happen?
- Do you think there will be more environmental disasters caused by humans in the future?
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